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Important exponents of Conceptualism include Sol Le Witt, Joseph Beuys, Felix Gonzales-Torres, Eva Hesse, Jenny Holzer, Joseph Kosuth, Barbara Kruger, Jean Tinguely and Lawrence Weiner.
Other artists associated with the movement include Mel Bochner, Hanne Darboven, Agnes Denes, Jan Dibbets, Hans Haacke, On Kawara and Les Levine.
It was associated with artists like Robert Indiana (b.1928), Jasper Johns (b.1930), On Kawara (1932-2014), Barbara Kruger (b.1945) and Christopher Wool (b.1955).
Conceptual art is a postmodernist art movement founded on the principle that art is a 'concept' rather than a material object.
For works by one of Europe's first conceptual artists, please see also: Yves Klein's Postmodernist art (1956-62).
Thus the difficulty for Conceptualism is to show how it qualifies as art, as opposed to entertainment, theatre, or political commentary.See for instance our short guide to Andy Warhol's Pop Art of the sixties.Word Art was a brand new form of painting or sculpture which used text-based imagery.Contemporary artists associated with this genre include the pioneer Allan Kaprow (1927-2006), Yves Klein (1928-62), Gilbert & George (b.1943, 1942), and the extraordinary Joseph Beuys (1921-86), who created the innovative performance How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965).Another innovative artist is the Korean-American Nam June Paik (1932-2006), who began in performance art before working with televisions and video, and thereafter installations.
Fluxus was an avant-garde group of artists (its name means "flowing" in Latin) led by the Lithuanian-born art theorist George Maciunas (1931-78), which first appeared in Germany before spreading to other European capitals and then New York City, which became the centre of its activities.